Wednesday, July 29, 2020
Best Things to Do to Become a Better Person 12 Self Improvement Tips HomeâºEducation Postsâº12 Self Improvement Tips Education PostsWe are not perfect, and we regularly make mistakes. That is why people have always tried to become better. Below, you will find life hacks from an ordinary guy who is looking for his better self, and he has achieved some success in this uneasy task.Personal Growth Is What Matters1. ComplimentsGive yourself a compliment every day. It can be anything, from your appearance to the abilities. This will make you feel happy and content.2. No Excuses Try not to blame people around you and stop making unnecessary excuses. Admit your mistakes and makeup them.3. No Anger Let your anger go. Anger affects our health and our decisions. This feeling is not healthy, so you have to learn to suppress it.4. Forgiveness Try to forgive people for their actions and words that offend you. This is one of the most precious tips on how to become a better person.5. Help People Good people never think only about themselve s. They help those who need their assistance, be it carrying a bag or giving someone a ride.6. Take Good Action Support, donate and cooperate with local establishments that will be helpful to people in your neighborhood. Community matters, if you want to change the world start locally and make the most of yourself.7. Politeness Pay attention to acts of politeness and kindness. Say Hello and Thank You to people. This will make you all feel better.8. BeYourself Donât try to be someone else. Think about your personal beliefs and principles and stick to them. This will help you focus and find your true identity.9. Be Ready to Change Open your heart to whatever the world will give you. Change is growth although it might seem scary at first.10. Show Respect Be respectful of other peopleâs labor. The same applies to the situations when people have a point of view that is opposite to yours.11. Self EducationIf there is something you do not know, learn! It is never too late to learn some thing new. Knowledge is development that will definitely do you good.12. Make Surprises Make people smile and laugh. This is one of the best feelings you get when you see peopleâs positive reaction to your actions.Becoming a better person is indeed a very nice process.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Ever since the year 2000, astronomers have used two unique telescopes that give them a peek at practically any part of the sky they wish to explore. These instruments are part of the Gemini Observatory, named for the Gemini constellation. They comprise an astronomy institution with twin 8.1-meter telescopes located in North and South America. Their construction began in the mid-1990s, guided by scientists from around the world. The observatorys country partners are Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Korea, and the United States, under the aegis of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under an agreement with the National Science Foundation. Each country has a national Gemini Office to coordinate participation. Its also part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) consortium. Both telescopes cost $184 million to build, and about $16 million per year for ongoing operations. In addition, $4 million a year are allocated for instrument development. Key Takeaways: Gemini Observatory Gemini Observatory is really one institution with two telescopes: Gemini North is located on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii and Gemini South is on Cerro Pachon in Chile.The two telescopes together can study nearly the entire sky (except for two small areas at the celestial poles).The Gemini telescopes use instruments and cameras, plus adaptive optics systems.Ã Gemini Observatory can study anything from solar system objects to planets around other stars, starbirth, star death, and galaxies out to the limits of the observable universe. One Observatory, Two Telescopes The Gemini Observatory has historically been called one observatory, two telescopes. Both were planned and built on high-altitude mountains to provide clear seeing without atmospheric distortion that plagues telescopes at lower altitudes. Both telescopes are 8.1 meters across, each containing a single-piece mirror fabricated at the Corning glass works in New York. These flexible reflectors are nudged by a system of 120 actuators that gently shape them for astronomical observations. Gemini North with its laser system creating guide stars for adaptive optics. Gemini ObservatoryÃ Each telescope uses these adaptive optics systems and laser guide stars, which help correct for atmospheric motions that cause starlight (and light from other objects in the sky) to be distorted. The combination of high-altitude location and cutting-edge technology gives Gemini Observatory some of the best astronomical views on Earth. Together, they cover nearly the entire sky (except for regions around the north and south celestial poles). Gemini North on Mauna KeaÃ The northern half of the Gemini Observatory is located on the Big Island of Hawaii, at the summit of the Mauna Kea volcano. At an altitude of 4,200 meters (13,800 feet), this facility, officially named the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini Telescope (commonly called Gemini North), exists in a very dry, remote region. Both it and its twin are used by astronomers from the five member countries, plus researchers from the nearby University of Hawaii. The U.S. Gemini office is located in Hilo, Hawaii. It houses a staff of scientists, technical staff, outreach experts, and administrators.Ã Gemini North with the Milky Way overhead, and the lights of a town in the distance. The observatory is generally above the clouds, which blocks light from nearby cities. Gemini Observatory/Joy Pollard The facility is open to astronomers who wish to do their work in person, but most take advantage of the telescopes remote operations capability. That means the telescope is programmed to do their observations and return the data to them when the observations are done.Ã Gemini South at Cerro PachÃ ³n The second pair of the Gemini twin telescopes is located on Cerro PachÃ ³n, in the Chilean Andes mountains. Its at an altitude of 2,700 meters (8,900 feet). Like its sibling in Hawaii, Gemini South takes advantage of very dry air and good atmospheric conditions to observe the southern hemisphere skies. It was built about the same time as Gemini North and made its first observations (called first light) in 2000.Ã Gemini South with its vents open at sunset. Gemini ObservatoryÃ The Instruments of Gemini The twin Gemini telescopes are outfitted with a number of instruments, including a set of optical imagers, plus other technology that dissect incoming light using spectrographs and spectrometers. These instruments provide data about distant celestial objects that are not visible to the human eye, particularly near-infrared light. The special coatings on the telescope mirrors make infrared observations possible, and help scientists study and explore such things as planets, asteroids, clouds of gas and dust, and other objects in the universe.Ã Instruments are attached to the Gemini North and South telescopes using instrument support systems. This one, at Gemini South, has several instruments attached (the box-like structures). Gemini Observatory The Gemini Planet Imager One particular instrument, the Gemini Planet Imager, was built to help astronomers search out extrasolar planets around nearby stars. It began operations at Gemini South in 2014. The imager itself is a collection of observational instruments including a coronagraph, spectrograph, adaptive optics, and other parts that help astronomers locate planets around other stars. It has been in operation since 2013 and has been continually tested and improved. One of its most successful planet searches turned up the world 51 Eridani b, which lies about 96 light-years away from Earth.Ã Polar ring galaxy NGC 660 as see through Gemini Observatorys north telescope. Gemini ObservatoryÃ Geminis Celestial Discoveries Since Gemini opened, it has peered into distant galaxies and studied the worlds of our own solar system. Among its most recent discoveries, Gemini North took a look at a distant quasar (an energetic galaxy) that had previously been observed by two other observatories: the Keck-1 on Mauna Kea and the Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT) in Arizona. Geminis role was to focus on a gravitational lens that was bending the light from the distant quasar toward Earth. Gemini South has also studied distant worlds and their actions, including one that may have been kicked out of orbit around its star. Other images from Gemini include a look at a colliding galaxy called a polar ring galaxy. This one is called NGC 660, and the image was taken from the Fredrick C. Gillett Gemini North telescope in 2012. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Exiled Exoplanet Likely Kicked out of Stars Neighborhood.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã » Circumstellar Disks, planetimager.org/.Gemini Observatory, ast.noao.edu/facilities/gemini.Ã¢â¬Å"Gemini Observatory.Ã¢â¬ Ã Gemini Observatory, www.gemini.edu/.National Research Council Canada. Ã¢â¬Å"Gemini Observatory.Ã¢â¬ Ã Construction Technology Updates, 27 Sept. 2018, www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/solutions/facilities/gemini.html.
Saturday, May 9, 2020
My Personal Journey to Social Work The decision to pursue my education in social work at Dalhousie University was not an easy one. While I was growing up, my career choice changed all of them time, but I always knew that I wanted to do something fulfilling, in which I could Ã¢â¬Å"helpÃ¢â¬ and support people. My mom was a nurse and always loved helping people; I always figured I would follow in her footsteps, however I learned at an early age that sciences do not come easy to me. Unfortunately, my mom lost her battle to breast cancer when I was eight years old, so I hope that by me helping people socially, rather than medically like she did, will continue her legacy. I decided to obtain my Bachelor of Arts degree at Saint MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s University in Halifax, N.S. where I double majored in Criminology and Sociology and minored in Psychology. Once I graduated, I still did not know what career path was right for me, so I took a year off. In the meantime, I applied to three Schools of Social Work: Dalhousie University in Halifax, N.S., St. Thomas University in Fredericton, N.B., and Memorial University in St. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, N.L. I spent my gap year working to save up money so I could pay for my next two years of schooling. I decided to apply to schools of social work because I was really interested in my courses that were related to child development and behaviours, interactions between people and society, social inequality and justice, and human rights, which are all relevant to social work. IShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : Personal And Professional Goals1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPersonal / Professional Goals I completed my BS in Human Services in March 2015. Since that time, I have been researching many colleges fluctuating between the MSW, MFT and Mental Health Counseling degrees. I consider my graduate school decision to be a positive life-altering decision requiring much thought, and research. 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When personal identity, is stifled and shaped by nationalistic discourse. By examining the polarised dichotomies of self-identity, juxtaposed against the internalised and dominant hegemonic discourse of imposed National and cultural identity. The paper will endeavourRead MoreBecoming A Licensed Clinical Social Worker1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMy aspiration is to become a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) in the field of behavioral/mental health. How I ve acted toward this goal is by attending and graduating from Gateway Community College, so that I could transfer into Arizona State University (ASU) to pursue my Bachelor Degree in Social Work. My intentions in applying for the Advanced Standing Program in Direct Practice is to collaborate with future classmates and ASU faculty staff to demonstrate best practices in training and researchRead MoreGrief By Alice W. Terry1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages this journal gave me a personal perspective of the anguish experienced by those who are grieving. A Journey in Grief by Alice W. Terry was a beautiful tribute to her daughter, as well as an informative and educational piece of literature about the grieving process. I personally felt pain and sorrow for the author as I was reading the article; I cannot imagine what is might be like to loose someone as close to you as a daughter, so suddenly. Ã¢â¬Å"I look at the things in my life and am repulsed atRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Nursing1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaspects and history that is authentic within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own journey. My personal nursing philosophy is a phenomenon by itself, I am calling it integrative holistic sensitive care. This theory fits into a metaparadigm that is intimately connected to personal experiences, learned behaviors, combination social and public health, laughter, harm reduction and patient centered care. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Tantania Dixon Corrections 320 Final Paper If we ever want our economy to recover and our citizens to prosper, we need to overhaul our correctional system immediately. The correctional system has three main goals: punish, protect the population and rehabilitate the offender. However, it is unclear how well the modern U. We will write a custom essay sample on Opinion on the Us Correctional Facility or any similar topic only for you Order Now S. correctional system achieves these goals and whether the money invested in the correctional system might be better spent. Perhaps the most obvious goals of the correctional system are to punish those who are found guilty of crimes. In theory, this is supposed to serve as prevention against one repeating criminal activities and as an example to others of why criminal activities should be avoided. Incarceration is the most common example of punishment in the correctional system, but the death penalty and lesser penalties such as probation are also designed to be punitive. However, the correctional system acts as being too lenient on those who commit crimes. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re let into the prison/jail and are just free to live, something as far as harsh punishment needs to be put in action, or their mentality of jail being a Ã¢â¬Å"free rideÃ¢â¬ is going to remain the same. If there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any other punishment being put into force, besides the fact that their sentenced to time in prison, the offender is basically getting over on the system. A basic day in the life of a prisoner is eat, sleep, working out, visits, community service, and communication with other inmates, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not teaching them what they did was wrong at all. They need to be put in classes, as if someone gets a speeding charge they have to go to driving classes, not only because they committed a crime, Tantania Dixon ut to understand what crime they have committed and why NOT to do it again, and the value of what can happen if itÃ¢â¬â¢s done again. In addition to punishing a criminal, the correctional system is supposed to protect the rest of the society from criminals. This includes the policing of streets as well as the imprisonment of criminals in jails. By keeping criminals in prison, they are not among the public and are not in a position in which they could harm the public at large with additional criminal acts. The protection of inmates also needs to be stricter than what it previously and still is. There are prisoners that get physically, mentally, and emotionally abused in prison, and even though it probably isnÃ¢â¬â¢t visible it happens, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s man on man inmates vice-versa for women inmates, but not only inmates, sometimes a correctional officer can commit these crimes as well. That can make an inmate retaliate on themselves, because they can feel like their privacy of themselves and their surroundings has been taken away. If this is done so, the inmate doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have anyone to speak with regarding that their treated like they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have feelings and concerns because they are inmates. However, at the end of the day inmates are still human beings, and correctional officers need to take notice of that. The correctional system is also supposed to rehabilitate inmates. Rehabilitation, if done well, will make the criminal functional in normal society after release. This may include vocational training, counseling and drug rehabilitation treatment. Rehabilitation is intended to shift the criminal from being a cost to society to being a contributing member of society. Some believe that if we want to rehabilitate criminals we must do more than just send them to prison. For Tantania Dixon instance, we could give them a chance to obtain job skills, which will improve the chances that inmates will become productive citizens upon release. The programs must aim to change those who want to change. Those who are taught to produce useful goods and to be productive are likely to develop the self-esteem essential to a normal, integrated personality. This kind of program would provide skills and habits and replace the sense of hopelessness that many inmates have. Another technique used to rehabilitate criminals is counseling. There are two types of counseling in general, individual and group counseling. Individual counseling is much more costly than group counseling. The aim of group counseling is to develop positive peer pressure that will influence its members. Ã¢â¬Å"One idea in much sociology text is that group problem-solving has definite advantages over individual problem-solving. The idea is that a wider variety of solutions can be derived by drawing from the experience of several people with different backgrounds. Also one individualÃ¢â¬â¢s problem might have already been solved by another group member and can be suggested. Often if a peer proposes a solution it carries more weight than if the counselor were to suggest it. Ã¢â¬ (NYS Dept. of Correctional Services. 2000) Incarceration of criminals is expensive. It often costs more that $40 per day to keep a criminal in a prison. Similarly, the criminal prosecution process is expensive. In addition to paying the salaries of judges and district attorneys, the state must pay for criminal defense attorneys for criminals that do not have the financial means to hire an attorney on their own. This can easily cost thousands of dollars for a felony prosecution. Being that itÃ¢â¬â¢s so costly to keep an inmate in prison, the US Correctional System must ensure that the prisoners behind bars, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t Tantania Dixon innocent, and has actually committed the crime. The costs of just one inmate is very high, therefore the system needs to make sure that they are giving justice to the right criminals, and also if the crime is such as a minimum charge (i. e. drugs, vandalizing, stealing) they should have other justifications for that, so the state wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be issuing extra money for people with no so harsh crimes. The chart below, basically gives you an ideal of the estimated prices for inmates. Capital punishment, also dubbed the Ã¢â¬Å"death penalty,Ã¢â¬ is the pre-meditated and planned taking of a human life by a government in response to a crime committed by that legally convicted person. Ã¢â¬Å"It violates the right to lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦ It is the ultimate cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment. There can never be any justification for torture or for cruel treatment. Ã¢â¬ (Death Tantania Dixon Penalty Information Center). There are some defendants who have earned the ultimate punishment our society has to offer by committing murder with aggravating circumstances present. I believe life is sacred. It cheapens the life of an innocent murder victim to say that society has no right to keep the murderer from ever killing again. In my view, society has not only the right, but the duty to act in self defense to protect the innocent. As of October 2009, capital punishment in the US is officially sanctioned by 34 states, as well as by the federal government. Each state with legalized capital punishment has different laws regarding its methods, age limits and crimes which qualify. Although Capital Punishment is the way of getting people to understand killing or other crimes isnÃ¢â¬â¢t right, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t that be contradicting itself? If someone kills, then they should be killed for committing that crime? That law isnÃ¢â¬â¢t showing leadership whatsoever, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s showing that killing is the way, and that it is right. However, The Death penalty does in some way help the prisons from overcrowding, although if a criminal gets sentenced to life without parole or to the death penalty, the sentencing needs to be 100% accurate. Due to the facts in some states there have been false accusations and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s absolutely not acceptable to an innocent human being. Here is an example, how being a falsely accused criminal can ruin your life; Ã¢â¬Å"Brooklyn school custodianÃ Francis Evelyn once walked proud, worked hard and looked forward to a peaceful retirement. Now heÃ¢â¬â¢s too scared to go out his front door. Five months after his face was broadcast worldwide as an accused child rapist, Evelyn, 58, canÃ¢â¬â¢t sleep. He canÃ¢â¬â¢t stop the tears. He canÃ¢â¬â¢t wipe away the nightmare of being arrested, jailed and wrongly accused. Berated by cops, taunted by Rikers Island inmates and branded in his native Trinidad, the dignified, law-abiding immigrant has filed a $10 million claim against the city (New York) for ruining his life by believing a troubled child with a history of lying. Evelyn was Tantania Dixon paraded before television cameras and spent two days at Rikers before prosecutors, in a nearly unprecedented move, rushed to a night judge to drop the charges. Ã¢â¬Å"I had two more years to retire,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"After you work all that time, all that sacrifice, it comes to this? I want to get over this! Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want those charges just to be sealed. I want it to be washed away! I want an apology. Come on. Clear my name! Ã¢â¬ (New York Daily News Newspaper, September. 2007) Although Mr. EvelynÃ¢â¬â¢s charge was dropped, he still has to face life of once being called a child molester, he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to live with that accusation to his name, itÃ¢â¬â¢s cruel and very un-justice. In conclusion, the US Correctional System has a lot of cleaning up to do, its name needs to be clean, and show America how to be a good leader. We as Americans donÃ¢â¬â¢t want our children to be able to look at cops as being crocked, and not being able to see them as being truthful. The correctional system does have good goals as for getting the criminals off the streets, protecting the community, being able to let people know that they are safe. The prisons in America take the criminals and give them justice, show them that they are wrong and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be free to live their lives, because when they were given the chance to they screwed up and now have to pay the time, for committing the crime. How to cite Opinion on the Us Correctional Facility, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Integrity, discipline, selfless service, loyalty, courage, and competence are a few of the values and traits the military has instilled in me. Many of my successes in life can be attributed to those values and traits. I believe for the most part it is because these values and traits where built upon a strong foundation of perseverance. Obtaining my baccalaureate degree and my commission as an officer in the Army are prime examples of how perseverance allowed me to overcome difficult obstacles in my life.Neither of my parents went to college. My mother, a Dutch immigrant, finished her education short of fourth grade. My father barely passed the GED with the help of his Army recruiter. My parents worked hard but had little to show for it. I knew I wanted more out of life for my self and my family. Education was my opportunity to change my life. The specialized education system I had attended while in Holland resulted in my graduating high school at age 16. My father felt college would be a waste of money and refused to support me financially. My mother could not assist me financially, but she gave me the most valuable thing I needed; her encouragement. Two months after graduation from High School, I got a job working 45 to 50 hours a week, moved out into my own apartment and enrolled in college full-time. My average workday began at 4:30 am and ended at 3:30 pm. I went to school during the week from 6:00 pm to 11:00 pm. I still do not recall when I slept or did school work, but I was determined to succeed.As busy as I was between work and school, I still found time to do volunteer activities here and there. When I turned 17, I wanted to make a more substantial impact in the community that also would enhance my future. I joined the National Guard. I firmly believed, and still do, that nothing in life is free and that includes our rights and freedom. Even though the National Guard was taking up an additional weekend per month, I was still progressing in college at a decent pace and receiving decent grades. In the middle of my sophomore year, I began to realize that I did not just want to make a difference in the community, I wanted to lead others to make a difference too. The National Guard at the time was in need of officers; especially female officers. I applied to the Officer Candidate School weekend program, and was accepted. The rigorous and demanding training process began with one hundred soldiers. Five of the one hundred soldiers where females. From the beginning, I was singled out by the tactical officers because I was a female and had opted to go in the Corps of Engineers upon graduation. Female officers did not traditionally go into engineering at that time. Fourteen months later, eleven soldiers received Federal Commissions as Second Lieutenants in the U.S. Army. I was the only female among the eleven to graduate. Serving as an officer gave me some unexpected financial benefits that let me cut back the hours I was working and focu s more on school. Finally, five years after I started the journey for my degree I received my Bachelors in Business.The perseverance I displayed in pursuing my degree and commission is the same perseverance that will ensure my success at the University of Maryland. My background in diverse leadership positions will allow me to contribute to my class from a unique perspective. Not many individuals at age nineteen have experienced being responsible for over thirty people. I have prepared and lead a 120 soldier unit for overseas deployment during a time of hostilities. The difficult decisions I have made and ethical dilemmas I have endured have made me realize the importance of choosing the harder right rather than the easier wrong. It is this realization that will not only guide me while in school, but later on to become lawyer of integrity and character. I wish to study law for the same reason I joined the military. I want to serve my community from a position of leadership that is n ot only challenging, but in which I can make a difference.I believe the University of Maryland will provide me a leading education and open doors to future opportunities. Having an education from an institution that is among the best in the nation certainly helps when pursuing a professional career, but it is not the primary reason for my choice. The primary factor for me choosing the University of Maryland is its applications oriented education. To read something and see it done is valuable, but to truly understand and succeed you must apply it in as a real environment as possible. The Army uses a saying to guide leaders in establishing training for its soldiers: Train as you fight and you will fight as you train. I try to apply this philosophy to my education whenever possible. The law clinics, externships and the mentor program the University of Maryland offers will give me that valuable hands on training experience I will need in order to successfully serve the community. It is my sincere hope that you will that you will consider my application favorably and grant me entrance to the law program.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Absolutism and Peter the Great Analysis Essays Absolutism and Peter the Great Analysis Essay Absolutism and Peter the Great Analysis Essay Absolutism and Peter the Great Analysis paragraph Peter the Great made a great effort to change Russia and he conquered his ideas and what he wanted to do with his nation. He strengthened the military, created a navy, and stopped the isolation of Russia. Since Peter was born in the medieval world he was captivated by the modern clothes and army; he was really interested in ships and navy. He built a ship just to communicate with the west (Europe) to exchange technology, ideas and other goods, he wanted to westernize Russia; he felt it necessary to do so because he thought that if Russia didnt modernize it would be left behind and would get run over by his European neighbors. When he went to europe he learned nautical science, how to build a gun, dentistry, astronomy, surgery, making paper, printing, and rendering. He also went all the way to England to build the strongest navy, after 16 months of absence from his homeland there were revolts in Moscow. When he returned to Moscow he changed the way the nobles dressed, and he wanted everyone including the women to educate themselves and be more European. He took Russia out of the dark ages. He also brought news paper, astronomy, new capital, new navy, new museums, new title (emperor) and hospitals. Peter the Great was a great Tsar for Russia; he brought a lot of goods to his nation and that helped to modernize Russia and also to have contact with other parts of the world.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
An Explanation of Acid Mine Drainage In a nutshell, acid mine drainage is a form of water pollution that happens when rain, runoff, or streams come in contact with rock that is rich in sulfur. As a result, the water becomes very acidic and damages downstream aquatic ecosystems. In some regions, it is the most common form of stream and river pollution. Sulfur-bearing rock, especially one type of mineral called pyrite, is routinely fractured or crushed during coal or metal mining operations, and accumulated in piles of mine tailings. Pyrite contains iron sulfide which, when in contact with water, dissociates into sulfuric acid and iron. The sulfuric acid dramatically lowers the pH, and the iron can precipitate and form an orange or red deposit of iron oxide that smothers the bottom of the stream. Other harmful elements like lead, copper, arsenic, or mercury may also be stripped from the rocks by the acidic water, further contaminating the stream. Where Does Acid Mine Drainage Happen? It mostly occurs where mining is done to extract coal or metals from sulfur-bearing rocks. Silver, gold, copper, zinc, and lead are commonly found in association with metal sulfates, so their extraction can cause acid mine drainage. Rainwater or streams become acidified after they run through the mineÃ¢â¬â¢s tailings. In hilly terrain, older coal mines were sometimes built so that gravity would drain out water from inside the mine. Long after those mines are closed, acid mine drainage continues to come out and contaminate waters downstream. In the coal mining regions of the eastern United States, over 4,000 miles of stream have been impacted by acid mine drainage. These streams are mostly located in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio. In the western U.S., on Forest Service land alone there are over 5,000 miles of affected streams.Ã In some circumstances, sulfur-bearing rock can be exposed to water in non-mining operations. For example, when construction equipment cuts a path through bedrock to build a road, pyrite can be broken up and exposed to air and water. Many geologists thus prefer the term acid rock drainage, since mining is not always involved. Environmental Effects Drinking water becomes contaminated. Groundwater can be affected, impacting local water wells.Waters with a very low pH can support only severely reduced animal and plant diversity. Fish species are some of the first to disappear. In the most acidic streams, only some specialized bacteria survive.Because of how corrosive it is, acidic stream water damages infrastructure such as culverts, bridges, and stormwater pipes.Any recreational potential (e.g., fishing, swimming) and scenic value for streams or rivers affected by acid mine drainage are greatly reduced.Ã Solutions Passive treatment of acidic streams can be conducted by routing the water into a purpose-built wetland designed to buffer the low pH. Yet, these systems require complex engineering, regular maintenance, and are applicable only when certain conditions are present.Active treatment options include isolating or treating the waste rock to avoid contact of water with sulfates. Once water has been contaminated, options include pushing it through a permeable reactive barrier that neutralizes the acid or routing it through a specialized wastewater treatment plant. Sources Reclamation Research Group. 2008. Acid Mine Drainage and Effects on Fish Health and Ecology: A Review.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Acid Mine Drainage Prediction.